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Discriminative stimulus properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in pigeons. Drug-induced discrimination: A description of the paradigm and a review of its specific application to the study of hallucinogenic agents. Structure-activity studies on methoxy-substituted phenylisopropylamines using drug discrimination methodology. Structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of hallucinogenic agents based on drug discrimination and radioligand binding studies. A preliminary investigation of the psychoactive agent 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine: A potential drug of abuse. The effect of pretreatment with iproniazid on the behavioral activities of phenethylamine in rats. Discriminative stimulus properties of d-amphetamine and related compounds in rats. The effects of (±)methylenedioxymethamphetamine and (±)methylenedioxyamphetamine in monkeys trained to discriminate (+)amphetamine from saline. Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butaneamine: Representatives of a novel therapeutic class. Discriminative stimulus properties of amphetamine and structurally related phenalkylamines. Neurotoxic effects of amphetamines and, more recently, their designer derivatives on neurons containing dopamine and serotonin-two neurotmnsmitters of paramount significance in neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive, defensive, social, and sexual behavior-have added a new dimension to the current wave of stimulant abuse (Seiden and Vosmer 1984; Ricaurte et al. In fact, amphetamines may be associated with extreme changes in aggressive and social interactions: intense and sudden acts of aggression as well as total withdrawal from any social intercourse. These striking, seemingly opposite shifts in social and aggressive behavior under the influence of amphetamines and related substances are the product of numerous pharmacological, behavioral, and environmental, as well as genetic determinants. Another paradox about amphetamines and related psychomotor stimulants is their calming effect on excessively aggressive children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. The neurobiological mechanisms for the multiple effects of amphetamines on aggressive behavior have been most often related to those relevant to the motor-activating and motorarousing effects of these drugs. Yet, mechanisms of amphetamine action specific to their effects on aggressive and social behavior have eluded a satisfactory delineation. As recently reviewed (Miczek 1987), a series of clinical observations and surveys of institutionalized drug abusers and delinquents point to greatly varying representation of amphetamines in these individuals during the commission of violent and criminal behavior. For example, several descriptions of murders and other intense violent behavior attribute these seemingly unpredictable and drastic changes in behavior to amphetamine abuse (Ellinwood 1971; Siomopoulos 1981). Frequently, clinical analyses suggest that chronic amphetamine intoxication, particularly by the intravenous route, produces a psychotic paranoid state, including frightening delusions that may result in aggressive acts (Kramer 1969; Angrist and Gershon 1969; Ellinwood 1971; Siomopoulos 1981). Some surveys found sizable proportions of prison populations and juvenile delinquents to have committed their crimes of violence while intoxicated by amphetamines (Hemmi 1969; Simonds and Kashani 1979); conversely, others reported rare cases and very small percentages of juvenile delinquents and excessively hostile individuals as having abused amphetamine (Tinklenberg and Woodrow 1974; Tinklenberg et al. The reliability of several of these surveys is compromised by the lack of adequately matched samples in highly selected populations of institutionalized individuals.

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The pooled analysis showed a higher but statistically insignificant risk of diabetes with statins. Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: U. Statin Use for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults: A Systematic Review for the U. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Syntheses, formerly Systematic Evidence Reviews. Risk of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis associated with lipid-lowering drugs in a real-world clinical setting. Risk score overestimation: the impact of individual cardiovascular risk factors and preventive therapies on the performance of the American Heart Association-American College of Cardiology-Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease risk score in a modern multi-ethnic cohort. Use of high potency statins and rates of admission for acute kidney injury: multicenter, retrospective observational analysis of administrative databases. Management of dyslipidemia for cardiovascular disease risk reduction: synopsis of the 2014 U. Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Guidelines for management of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension Canada’s 2017 Guidelines for Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension in Adults. Safety Profile of Atorvastatin 80 mg: A Meta-Analysis of 17 Randomized Controlled Trials in 21,910 Participants. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Validation of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort risk equations. Guideline-Based Statin Eligibility, Coronary Artery Calcification, and Cardiovascular Events. Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials. Wanner C, Krane V, März W, et al for the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study Investigators. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. This edition of the guideline was approved for publication by the Guideline Oversight Group in April 2018. The plan does not contain comprehensive adult wellness benefits as defined by law. You can’t help notice the difference in the person’s life—both physically and emotionally.

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Current concepts in chronic postmoderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a lontraumatic headache. Headaches among acteristics of patients with persistent post-concusOperation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring sion symptoms: a prospective study. Proton spectrosoutcomes for patients with mild traumatic brain copy in patients with post-traumatic headache injury. Emergency department assessment of mild traumatic brain injury and Obelieniene D, Schrader H, Bovim G, et al. Pain the prediction of postconcussive symptoms: a after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception 3-month prospective study. Incidence and traumatic headache: emphasis on chronic types folpredictors of chronic headache attributed to whiplowing mild closed head injury. Post-traumatic headache: commentary: an head restraints – frequency of neck injury claims in overview. Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force Posttraumatic headache: biopsychosocial comparion Whiplash-Associated Disorders: redefining sons with multiple control groups. Post-craniotomy headache after acousCraniotomy site influences postoperative pain foltic neuroma surgery. This remains true when the new headartery disorder ache has the characteristics of any of the primary head6. This vical carotid or vertebral artery dissection rule applies similarly to new migraine-aura-like symp6. When a pre-existing headache with the characteristics artery dissection of a primary headache disorder becomes chronic,oris 6. The close temporal relationship betweentheheadacheandthese neuroDescription: New and usually acute-onset headache logical signs is therefore crucial to establishing causation. It is very rarely the orrhagic stroke, headache is overshadowed by focal signs presenting or a prominent feature of ischaemic stroke. In a number of other conditions that can Diagnostic criteria: induce both headache and stroke, such as dissections, cerebral venous thrombosis, giant cell arteritis and central nerA. Any new headache fulfilling criteria C and D vous system angiitis, headache is often an initial warning B. Evidence of causation demonstrated by either or ation of headache with thesedisorders in order todiagnose both of the following: correctly the underlying vascular disease and start appro1. A clue that points to an underlying vascular conlel with stabilization or improvement of other dition is the onset, usually sudden, of a new headache, symptoms or clinical or radiological signs of so far unknown to the patient. Whenever this occurs, ischaemic stroke vascular conditions should urgently be looked for. A cranial and/or cervical vascular disorder known to be able to cause headache has been demonstrated Note: C. It is usually of moderate intensity, parallel with improvement of the cranial and has no specific characteristics.


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Capybara Bronchitis and asthma (skin) (Hydrochaeridae/ Mammalia)* (capivara)° powder ingested Iguana cf. Iguana Osteoporosis and rheumatism (bone) (Iguanidae/Reptilia)* (iguana)° powder ingested Periplaneta americana L. Cockroach Bronchitis and asthma (whole animal) (Blattidae/Insecta) (barata)  powder ingested Garcia 002 Placosoma sp. Lizard Wounds in the body (skin) powder (Gymnophthalmidae/Reptilia)* (calango)° ingested Rhinella sp. Cururu frog Cancer of skin (whole animal) in (Bufonidae/Amphibia)* (sapocururu)° natura: tie it on the cancer for some time each day topic Tolypeutes sp. Armadillo-ball Wounds in the body (skin) powder (Dasypodidae/Mammalia)* (tatubola)° ingested Marked by () the two animals whose use had been maintained, while 10, marked by (°) are those whose uses have fallen into disuse. The Influence of Displacement by Human Groups Among Regions in the Medicinal Use of Natural Resource: A Case Study in Diadema, São Paulo Brazil 499 Category of use Complaints (number of plants cited) Total number of plants 1Gastrointestinal To combat worms (1), ulcer (1), diarrhoea (1), disturbances bellyache (2), heartburn (1), intestinal infections (1), liver pain (3), to improve 24 digestion (1), hemorrhoid (1), as laxative (10) and for stomach purify (2) 2Inflammatory As anti-inflammatory (3) and healing (6), to processes treat sty/conjunctivitis (2), inflammation in 19 the mouth/throat (3), rheumatism (2), sinusitis (2) and gingivitis (1) 3Respiratory To combat cough (1), bronchitis (15) and as 18 problems expectorant (2) 4Anxiolytic/ As sedative (11) 11 hypnotics 5-Osteomuscular To ease back pain (1), muscles pain (6), hip problems pain (1), prevent osteoporosis (1) and to treat 10 lesions in bone (1) 6Dermatological To combat external allergies (2), wounds in the problems body (5) and inhibits the growth of skin stains 8 (1) 7Genitourinary As diuretic (5), to combat kidney stone (2) and 8 disturbances treating urine with blood (1) 8Endocrine system To reduce cholesterol (1) and diabetes (3) 4 9Cardiovascular Treat heart problems (1) and as blood purifier 3 problems (2) 10Immunological To combat breast cancer (1) and stomach 2 problems cancer (1) 11Analgesics Earache (2) 2 12Fever To combat fever (1) 1 Total 110* *Some plants have been cited for more than one complaint, so the total number of plants above (110) is higher than the ones indicated by the interviewees. The 12 categories of use comprising the 41 complaints, their total and partial number of plants cited by the five migrants (adapted of Garcia et al. This may explain why so many plants and animals were used to treat respiratory disturbances in Diadema, which has been shown in studies of the Sistema Único de Saúde (2011) to be the second largest cause of death in Diadema 14,4%. Many animals have been used for medical 500 Pharmacology purposes since antiquity (Antonio, 1994; Conconi & Pino, 1988; Gudger, 1925; Weiss, 1947). Despite the existence of several ethnopharmacological studies suggesting the bioactive potential of Brazilian fauna (Alves & Delima, 2006; Alves & Dias, 2010; Alves & Rosa, 2005; Costa-Neto, 2002, 2006; Hanazaki et al. No pharmacological data was found in the literature for the five animals identified in the present study: rattlesnake (Crotalus cf. The lack of information available on medicinal animal products leads us to conclude that this is a largely unexplored topic in Brazil and that future pharmacological studies should confirm the potential therapeutic value of these species. Values of Informant consensus factor (Fic) for each category of use, considering the plants cited by the five Diadema’s migrants (adapted of Garcia et al. Category of use Complaints (number of animals) 1-Respiratory problems bronchitis (7), asthma (4) 2-Central nervous system epilepsy (1) 3-Inflammatory processes rheumatism (1) 4-Dermatological problems wounds in the body (1), skin cancer (1) 5-Analgesics back pain (1) 6-Cardiovascular problems treat heart problems (1), hemorrhage (1) Total 18* * some animals have been cited for more than one complaint, so their total number above (18) is higher than the number of animals indicated: 12. The Influence of Displacement by Human Groups Among Regions in the Medicinal Use of Natural Resource: A Case Study in Diadema, São Paulo Brazil 501 5. Conclusion the ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological survey among migrants becomes important in that it rescues the knowledge and values that are rapidly disappearing with the death of older migrants and destruction of biomes around the world (Ososki et al. The studies that rescue a large number of uses for different categories (for exemple: gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, fever and others), can expand several lines of pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. In addition, it may be more important for the development of new drugs with large pharmacological/phytochemicals effects and safer, as well some therapeutic uses mentioned by the migrants were confirmed by previous studies in the literature.

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Should the patient be found not to meet the medical criteria, the health professional will take a conciliatory and supportive role while fully explaining the risks posed by the patient’s condition with respect to driving a vehicle. The health professional should be particularly aware of the needs of the patient whose livelihood is likely to be affected as a result of the assessment fndings. There are also special considerations for dealing with individuals who are not regular patients (refer to section 3. The situation may be more challenging when ftness to drive is considered in the course of a patient’s regular treatment and they are found not to meet the medical criteria. In such situations the health professional may be seen by the patient to be making the licensing decision even though this is not the case. Nonetheless, where the health professional believes that continued driving or continued unconditional driving would be likely to be dangerous, the patient should be informed of the risk to him or herself, and to others, of continuing to drive. Where possible, it is helpful to involve a family member or friend in this process. The driver should be encouraged to report their condition voluntarily to the driver licensing authority and should be reminded of their legal obligation to do so. The standards in this publication should be consulted when dealing with any such situation since they carry an authority that is not imposed on the driver by the health professional but by the national consensus of the driver licensing authorities. Information brochures may be available from the driver licensing authority to support the patient advisory process (refer to Appendix 9: Driver licensing authority contacts). Where patients are found not to meet the medical criteria or when conditions or restrictions are recommended, advice should be provided regarding alternative means of transport. Reference may also be made to disabled car parking and taxi services (refer to Appendix 6: Disabled car parking and taxi services). Only information relevant to the patient’s ability to drive should be included in the report, and it should be signed by the examining professional. The original of the medical report should be provided to the patient to return to the driver licensing authority, and a copy should be kept on fle in the patient’s medical record. Since the patient generally returns the medical report to the driver licensing authority there is no need for signed consent in this regard. The patient may, however, be asked by the driver licensing authority to provide signed consent for the driver licensing authority to contact the health professional to seek additional information about their condition for the purposes of assessing their ftness to drive. In the case of assessments made in the course of patient treatment, when encouraging patients to self-report their condition to the driver licensing authority, the health professional should complete a copy of the Medical condition notifcation form (refer to Appendix 2. Medical condition notifcation form) and provide this to the patient to take to the driver licensing authority. It is recommended that the health professional retain a copy of the Medical condition notifcation form in the patient record. The driver licensing authority will also accept a letter describing the patient’s condition and the nature of any driving restrictions recommended.

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